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Five Philosophical Stances Toward Morality

Philosophical--attempts to consider question(s)/observation(s) from all perspectives without personal prejudices or preconceived  attitudes.

Theological--considers question(s)/observation(s) from a preconceived attitude; religious viewpoint (all religious/spiritual concepts; generality); a particular religious viewpoint (Episcopalian, Baptists, etc.).

Societal--considers question(s)/observation(s) from the assumed dominant viewpoint of society-at-large, which is not enforceable by law, but which enforces by cultural acceptance/peer pressure/emotional appeals.

Political--considers question(s)/observation(s) from the stance of law; viewpoint is enforceable by law or sheer force.

Self--considers question(s)/observation(s) from the stance of the individual self; may respond emotionally or objectively or both;  may rely on empirical knowledge or innate knowledge or both; may or may not attempt to prove his/her rightness; may or may not be opinion rather than fact.

      copyright 1998, 2008 by TBM DATA/Patricia Thompson      Last update 8/2009